Many parts of the world have poor supplies of fresh water. What could be done to reduce this problem?
The world now is running out of fresh water, at least in some areas. In this essay, I will look at different ways in which countries could deal with this problem.
One way could be to produce fresh water from the sea. Desalination plants can provide coastal areas with a virtually unlimited amount of fresh water. However, desalination plants are so expensive to construct and operate that there are significant problems with this method. Since these countries that are experiencing water shortages, in the Third World and Africa, have very limited financial resources, this is currently an unrealistic option for them, but this could be more practical with the help of rich countries.
Perhaps, I think, the wiser solution is using less water instead of trying more expensive ways of getting water to people. Much water is used in agriculture, so scientific research into crops or agricultural technology that require or use less water might pay high dividends. For example, in some desert regions, dry gardens with low-water requiring plants, known as drought resistant plants, have been expanding. Another example is the drip irrigation system has been made Israel become a major agricultural exported despite its lack of water. Although this way also requires a great deal of money, I would suggest that this could be the most economical solution and a good long-term investment.
In conclusion, there are many ways of helping people and areas that currently have poor supplies of fresh water. However, all of these are prohibitively expensive – at least at the moment it cannot be done without help from other countries.